The results of these trials confirm the results of a number of earlier observational studies of thousands of patients, which showed no independent effect on the mortality of patients who achieved CVP targets versus patients who do not.5-9 ACEP notes that in the observational trials cited as supporting full bundle implementation, many who benefitted from the protocol did not actually have the CVP or ScVO2 measured or monitored.9 This supports our view that the most important and valid mandates are the earlier steps: measure lactate, obtain blood cultures, administer broad spectrum antibiotics, administer fluids, and apply vasopressors for hypotension that does not respond to initial fluid resuscitation. In response to the results of the ProCESS trial, ACEP initiated an NQF ad hoc review of the evidence. Upon review, the NQF Patient Safety Committee recommended removal of the requirement for invasive monitoring from measure #0500. The Committee’s recommendation, in accordance with NQF’s Consensus Development Process, will be subject to public comment, review by the Consensus Standards Approval Committee and ratification by the NQF Board of Directors. Although ACEP is strongly supportive of a measure of early identification and resuscitation for sepsis and septic shock, ACEP will continue to strenuously object to requiring steps that deliver limited benefit without clear evidence that creates the opportunity for unintended patient harm and impedes real quality improvement.
- Powell ES, Khare RK, Courtney DM, Feinglass J. Lower mortality in sepsis patients admitted through the ED vs direct admission. Am J Emerg Med. 2012;30:432-9.
- HCUP Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 2007-2009. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.hcupus.ahrq.gov/nisoverview.jsp
- ProCESS Investigators, Yealy DM, Kellum JA, et al. A randomized trial of protocol-based care for early septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2014 May 1;370:1683-93.
- Rivers E, Nguyen B, Havstad S, et al. Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:1368-77.
- Jones AE1, Shapiro NI, Trzeciak S, et al. Lactate clearance vs central venous oxygen saturation as goals of early sepsis therapy: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2010;303:739-46.
- Castellanos-Ortega A, Suberviola B, Garcia-Astudillo LA, et al. Impact of the surviving sepsis campaign protocols on hospital length of stay and mortality in septic shock patients: Results of a 3-year follow-up quasi-experimental study. Crit Care Med. 2010;38:1036-43.
- Nguyen HB, Corbett SW, Steele R, et al. Implementation of a bundle of quality indicators for the early management of severe sepsis and septic shock is associated with decreased mortality. Crit Care Med. 2007; 35:1105-12.
- Jeon K, Shin TG, Sim MS, et al. Improvements in compliance of resuscitation bundles and achievement of end points after an educational program on the management of severe sepsis and septic shock. Shock. 2012;37:463-7.
- Levy MM, Dellinger RP, Townsend SR, et al. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign: results of an international guideline-based performance improvement program targeting severe sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2010;38:367-374.
- Cannon CM, for the Multicenter Severe S, Septic Shock Collaborative G. The GENESIS Project (Generalization of Early Sepsis Interventions): a multicenter quality improvement collaborative. Acad Emerg Med. 2010;17:1258.