Explore This IssueACEP News: Vol 31 – No 04 – April 2012
Dr. Pendley is a third-year resident at the University of Chicago’s Emergency Medicine Residency Program. Dr. Ahn is a Medical Education Fellow and Clinical Instructor in the Section of Emergency Medicine at the University of Chicago Medical Center. Dr. Robert Solomon is Medical Editor of ACEP News and editor of the Focus On series, core faculty in the emergency medicine residency at Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, and Assistant Professor in the Department of Emergency Medicine at Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia.
Dr. Pendley, Dr. Ahn, and Dr. Solomon have disclosed that they have no significant relationships with or financial interests in any commercial companies that pertain to this article.
ACEP makes every effort to ensure that contributors to College-sponsored programs are knowledgeable authorities in their fields. Participants are nevertheless advised that the statements and opinions expressed in this article are provided as guidelines and should not be construed as College policy. The material contained herein is not intended to establish policy, procedure, or a standard of care. The views expressed in this article are those of the contributors and not necessarily the opinion or recommendation of ACEP. The College disclaims any liability or responsibility for the consequences of any actions taken in reliance on those statements or opinions.
- Shorr A. Economic implications of an evidence-based sepsis protocol: Can we improve outcomes and lower costs? Crit. Care Med. 2007;35:1257-62.
- Hotchkiss RS, et al. Apoptotic cell death in patients with sepsis, shock, and multiple organ dysfunction. Crit. Care Med 1999;27:1230-51.
- Angus DC, et al. Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care. Crit. Care Med 2001; 29:1303-1310.
- Angus DC, et al. Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care. Crit Care Med 2001; 29:1303-1310.
- American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine. Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. Crit. Care Med 1992;20:864-74.
- Rivers EP. Point: adherence to early goal-directed therapy: does it really matter? Yes. After a decade, the scientific proof speaks for itself. Chest 2010;138:476-80, 484-5.
- Rivers E. Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. N. Engl. J. Med. 2001;345:1368-77.
- Levy MM, et al.; Surviving Sepsis Campaign. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign: results of an international guideline-based performance improvement program targeting severe sepsis. Crit. Care Med. 2010 Feb;38(2):367?74.
- Dellinger RP, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008. Crit. Care Med. 2008;36:296-327. Erratum in: Crit. Care Med. 2008;36:1394-6.
- Carlbom DJ, Rubenfeld GD. Barriers to implementing protocol-based sepsis resuscitation in the emergency department. Crit. Care Med. 2007;35:2525-32.
- Brennan JM, et al. Handcarried ultrasound measurement of the inferior vena cava for assessment of intravascular volume status in the outpatient hemodialysis clinic. Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2006;1:749-53.
- Carr BG, et al. Intensivist bedside ultrasound (INBU) for volume assessment in the intensive care unit. J. Trauma 2007:63:495-502.
- Kircher BJ, Himelman RB, Schiller NB. Noninvasive estimation of right atrial pressure from the inspiratory collapse of the inferior vena cava. Am. J. Cardiol. 1990;66:493-6.
- Weekes A, et al. The sonodynamic study: Comparison of qualitative versus quantitative assessment and inter-rater reliability in serial ultrasonography evaluations of inferior vena cava dynamics and left ventricular systolic function in fluid resuscitation of emergency department patients with symptomatic hypotension. Ann. Emerg. Med. 2010;56(suppl):S77.
- Murphy C. The importance of fluid management in acute lung injury secondary to septic shock. Chest 2009;136:102-9.
- Dorrestrijn M. Iso-osmolar prehydration shifts the cytokine response towards a more anti-inflammatory balance in human endotoxemia. J. Endotox. Res. 2007;11:287.
- Ospina-Tascon G. Effects of fluids on microvascular perfusion in patients with severe sepsis. Intensive Care Med. 2010;36:949-55.
- Brennan JM, et al. A comparison by medicine residents of physical examination versus hand-carried ultrasound for estimation of right atrial pressure. Am. J. Cardiol. 2007;99:1614-6.
- Nagdev AD, et al. Emergency department bedside ultrasonographic measurement of the caval index for noninvasive determination of low central venous pressure. Ann. Emerg. Med. 2010;55:290-5.
- Yanagawa Y, Sakamoto T, Okada Y. Hypovolemic shock evaluated by sonographic measurement of the inferior vena cava during resuscitation in trauma patients. J. Trauma 2007;63:1245-8.
- Nguyen HB, et al. Early lactate clearance is associated with improved outcome in severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit. Care Med. 2004;32:1637-42.
- Gallagher EJ, Rodriguez K, Touger M. Agreement between peripheral venous and arterial lactate levels. Ann. Emerg. Med. 1997;29:479-83.
- Shapiro NI, et al. The feasibility and accuracy of point-of-care lactate measurement in emergency department patients with suspected infection. J. Emerg. Med. 2009 (doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2009.07.021).
- Jansen TC, et al., for the LACTATE Study Group. Early lactate-guided therapy in intensive care unit patients. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2010;182:752-61.
- Arnold RC, et al. Multicenter study of early lactate clearance as a determinant of survival in patients with presumed sepsis. Shock 2009;32:35-9.
- Jones AE, et al., and Emergency Medicine Shock Research Network Investigators. Lactate clearance vs. central venous oxygen saturation as goals of early sepsis therapy. JAMA 2010;303:739-46.
- Rivers EP, Coba V, Whitmill M. Early goal directed therapy in severe sepsis and septic shock. Curr. Opin. Anaesthesiol. 2008;21:128-40.
- Gaieski DF, et al. Impact of time to antibiotics on survival in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock in whom early goal-directed therapy was initiated in the emergency department. Crit. Care Med. 2010;38:1045-53.
- Marshall J, et al. Source control in the management of severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit. Care Med. 2004;32(11 suppl):S513-26.